News

19th September 2017

CHINA – FRUIT JUICE MARKET

The Chinese fruit juice export market is dominated by the apple juice industry. The country’s capacity to produce apple juice concentrate (AJC) far outstrips demand and it has taken a long time for the industry to find a balance. Production of AJC in China is estimated at around 550 000 tonnes per year and the main export market is the USA.  

The moderate climate of the growing regions in China coupled with the variety of apples that are suitable for this climate means that China produces low acid or sweet apple concentrate. Apple growing regions further south or north, such as Argentina and Poland are able to produce higher acid supplies, which often commands higher prices.  

There has been talk of China emerging as a global supplier of orange concentrate in the past, but so far, this has not materialised.  

It must also be pointed out that domestic uptake of juice in China is increasing every year.  

EXPORTS 

Table 1. Chinese exports of apple juice concentrate (tonnes)
Importers 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 % variance 2016 versus 2015
World 586619 597838 455800 473829 506358 7%
Leading importers
United States of America 292880 318749 216091 240108 256940 7%
Russian Federation 54702 49080 57031 35925 50700 41%
Japan 62896 68236 59167 60854 49237 -19%
South Africa 19532 33625 25561 16086 37957 136%
Canada 50438 32750 22359 23131 24262 5%
Australia 26170 26625 25407 25400 23814 -6%
Germany 19649 8878 2594 16664 7121 -57%
India 5717 5020 4966 4835 6094 26%
Turkey 7023 2530 3409 11273 5165 -54%
Saudi Arabia 3207 4139 4445 3916 4494 15%
Total Chinese exports to the above countries 542214 549632 421030 438192 465784 6%
% of world total 92% 92% 92% 92% 92%

Table 1. Apple juice concentrate (AJC). With imports averaging 50% of the world total over the past five years, the USA is by far the biggest consumer AJC exported by China. In fact the USA imports by volume total more than the other nine countries featured in this table combined.  Russia and Japan are a distant second and third in the table with around 20% of the USA’s total with Russia showing consistent consumption volumes for the period 2012 to 2016 and Japan recording a 21% drop for the same period. Exports to South Africa standing at 37597 tonnes in 2016 have increased markedly in the last two years (2014 to 2015) even improving on the volumes reported in 2013 of 32750 tonnes. Canada, Australia and Saudi Arabia have been consistent consumers over the past three years (2014 to 2016) with Germany and Turkey showing notable fluctuations over the same period. Chinese exports of AJC during the period recorded in the table have declined by approximately 13% with the countries listed importing 91% of these exports in 2016. 

Table 2. China – various juice exports
(tonnes) 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 % variance 2016 versus 2015
Pineapple juice concentrate 1466 771 1766 10251 8152 -20%
Orange juice concentrate 4408 4202 3512 3701 2990 -19%
Apple juice NFC 5014 3652 2789 1130 1032 -9%
Orange juice NFC 1366 1008 1085 786 990 26%

IMPORTS 

Not-from-concentrate (NFC) imports 

Table 3. Chinese imports of orange juice not from concentrate (NFC) (tonnes)
Exporters 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 % variance 2016 versus 2015
World 2042 3663 5561 6807 9911 46%
Leading exporters to China
Cyprus 373 1086 2046 2104 4167 98%
Spain 29 481 1094 792 957 21%
United Kingdom 21 23 46 218 894 310%
Thailand 248 381 380 520 805 55%
Greece 0 8 153 422 576 36%
United States of America 538 520 469 445 468 5%
Italy 61 117 171 309 449 45%
Austria 64 121 121 174 181 4%
Australia 286 242 167 172 147 -15%
Mexico 43 87 129 120 145 21%
Total Chinese imports from the above countries 1663 3066 4776 5276 8789 67%
% of world total 81% 84% 86% 78% 89%

Table 3China imports of fresh orange juice (NFC). Cyprus has been the largest exporter of fresh orange juice to China in recent years supplying over 40% of the countries imports in 2016 alone. In 2016 Cyprus reported record exports to China practically double the volumes supplied in 2015. Year on year 2016 versus 2015, all countries in this table showed an increase in exports to China with the exception of Australia who were down 15%. Notable increases include the United Kingdom (UK) which has shown a major uplift in volume shipped to China of 310% for the period. Spain, as would be expected, has been the second largest supplier for the last three years providing 20%, 12% and 11% of the total world exports or fresh orange juice to China in 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively. The countries listed in the table provided 89% of China’s imports during 2016. China’s consumption of imported fresh orange juice has increased by 46% in 2016 against 2015 and a massive 385% up on 2012, that’s 9911 tonnes up from 2042 tonnes.  

Table 4. Chinese imports of apple juice not from concentrate (NFC) (tonnes)
Exporters 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 % variance 2016 versus 2015
World 960 1609 2494 4539 5363 18%
Leading exporters to China
Cyprus 206 494 928 1584 2443 54%
United Kingdom 11 14 38 96 595 520%
Greece 0 1 99 159 308 94%
Spain 20 45 89 143 256 79%
Germany 54 60 89 263 201 -24%
Thailand 49 79 222 218 168 -23%
United States of America 154 272 250 299 145 -52%
Italy 18 34 71 209 131 -37%
Australia 180 99 92 108 112 4%
Japan 8 28 27 31 93 200%
Total Chinese imports from the above countries 700 1126 1905 3110 4452 43%
% of world total 73% 70% 76% 69% 83%

Table 4China imports of fresh apple juice (NFC). As with fresh orange juice reported in table 3, Cyprus by far the biggest exporter of fresh apple juice to the Chinese market with a 46% share of the world’s exports to China. The Mediterranean producer’s exports have increased substantially year on year from just 206 tonnes in 2012 to 1584 tonnes in 2015 with a further jump of 54% in 2016 to 2443 tonnes. China’s imports of fresh apple juice from the UK also increased by a significant 94% in 2016 up by 499 tonnes against the 2015 figure of 96 tonnes. Greece and Spain continue to grow their exports into this market with increases of 94% and 79% respectively – 2016 versus 2015. China’s Imports of fresh apple juice from countries worldwide has been steadily increasing with 2016 volumes up 458% against 2012 and up 18% against 2015. The leading exporters to China listed in table 4 constitute 83% of the worlds trade with China.  

Table 5. Chinese imports of pineapple juice not from concentrate (NFC) (tonnes)
Exporters 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 % variance 2016 versus 2015
World 605 1399 1785 2647 3528 33%
Leading exporters to China
Cyprus 183 637 1105 1514 2496 65%
United Kingdom 0 0 11 72 251 249%
Thailand 175 215 180 223 246 10%
Costa Rica 0 0 0 29 146 403%
Italy 16 75 96 154 124 -19%
Greece 0 6 80 183 72 -61%
Spain 1 8 53 143 47 -67%
France 1 9 5 40 28 -30%
Egypt 0 0 7 21 17 -19%
Germany 1 12 20 22 15 -32%
Total Chinese imports from the above countries 377 962 1557 2401 3442 43%
% of world total 62% 69% 87% 91% 98%

Table 5China imports of fresh pineapple juice (NFC).  In a very similar pattern to the trade in exports of fresh orange and apple juice to China, Cyprus is the country with the largest volumes of exports of fresh pineapple juice to China during the last five years, with an especially notable increase of 65% in 2016 against 2015.The combined volumes of the remaining nine countries listed here barely make up 38% of the Cypriot total of 2496 tonnes leaving Cyprus by far the biggest trader with China in fresh pineapple juice. The other most consistent exporter to China over the past five years has been Thailand in third place to the UK’s second who have entered the market from a very low base to record volumes of 251 tonnes of exports in 2015, up 249% on the previous year. Similarly, Costa Rica entered the market for China’s fresh pineapple juice imports in a big way in 2016 selling 146 tonnes against 29 tonnes the previous year and Italy remained a regular supplier of volumes averaging 124 tonnes over the three years 2014 to 2016. World trade with China has been on the increase from a low base of 605 tonnes in 2012 rising to 2647 tonnes in 2015 stepping up by 33% in 2016 to 2496 tonnes. The leading exporters featured in this table in 2016 were involved in 98% of the worlds trade with China in fresh pineapple juice. 

 Juice concentrate imports  

Table 6. Chinese imports of orange juice concentrate (FCOJ) (tonnes)
Exporters 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 % variance 2016 versus 2015
World 55852 58995 52806 45565 45874 1%
Leading exporters to China      
Brazil 41241 34528 37217 32351 35312 9%
Israel 11121 19136 9015 9493 9067 -4%
Netherlands 587 587 522 610 683 12%
Hong Kong, China 36 46 211 380 258 -32%
Cyprus 6 5 282 530 159 -70%
Spain 0 120 96 426 152 -64%
Mexico 303 1130 3733 705 51 -93%
Greece 46 114 137 0 42
Italy 233 172 193 0 4
Costa Rica 906 1969 422 199 0 -100%
United States of America 1319 1137 759 654 0 -100%
Total Chinese imports from the above countries 55798 58944 52587 45348 45728 1%
% of world total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Table 6. China imports of orange juice concentrate (FCOJ). China imports the vast majority of its orange juice concentrate (FCOJ) from Brazil – 77% in 2016. The only other country that comes close to this is Israel with 19% for the same period. And even than Brazil exports nearly four times the volume to China than Israel. Of the remaining countries that are or have been exporting FCOJ into China in the past five years the Netherlands has remained one of the most consistent averaging 597 tonnes per year. China has ceased or greatly reduced imports of FCOJ from three countries that were at one time supplying reasonable volumes – these being Mexico who reached a peak in 2014 of 3733 tonnes, Costa Rica who peaked at 1969 tonnes in 2013 and the USA. 

Table 7. Chinese imports of pineapple juice concentrate (tonnes)
Exporters 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
         
World 929 3314 1534 682 640
Leading exporters to China
Thailand 496 1059 732 408 510
Israel 0 0 0 1 39
Costa Rica 19 0 37 69 25
Indonesia 309 1633 684 155 22
Taipei, Chinese 0 4 0 9 22
Bulgaria 0 0 0 0 10
United States of America 7 12 3 0 5
Greece 0 0 0 0 3
Philippines 25 596 58 0 2
Spain 0 0 1 23 1
Total Chinese imports from the above countries 856 3304 1515 665 639
% of world total 92% 100% 99% 98% 100%

Table 7. Imports of pineapple juice concentrate into China.  Thailand supplies 80% of China’s consumption of imported pineapple juice concentrate with 510 tonnes in 2016 and 408 tonnes in 2015. Indonesia was the only other significant player in the market when during the period 2012 to 2014 when they were shipping between 309 tonnes and 1633 tonnes at the high point in 2013. This has subsequently dropped away almost completely to just 22 tonnes in 2016. 100% of the worlds exports to China for pineapple juice concentrate are from the countries listed in table 7. 

Table 9. China various juice imports (tonnes)
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
FCOJ 55852 58995 52806 45565 45874
NFC OJ 2042 3663 5561 6807 9911
APPLE NFC 960 1609 2494 4539 5363
APPLE CONC. 74 160 253 231 237
PINEAPPLE CONC. 929 3314 1534 682 640

Source: Customs trade data

By Ben Martin Trade Data Share: