• 17 Sep
    Citrus – world markets and trade

    Citrus – world markets and trade


    Global orange production for 2017/18 is forecast to tumble 6.0 million metric tons (tonnes) from the previous year to 47.8 million as unfavourable weather leads to smaller crops in Brazil and the United States. Similarly, fruit for processing is expected to fall, with orange juice production forecast down nearly 25% to 1.6 million tonnes (65 degrees brix) on the production slide in Brazil and the United States. Fresh exports are relatively unchanged while lower supplies are expected to affect processing oranges.

    US production is estimated to fall 24% to 3.5 million tonnes as unfavourable weather and citrus greening disease continue to cause fruit to drop in Florida before it is ripe. Exports, consumption, and fruit for processing are all lower with the smaller crop.

    Brazil’s production is forecast to fall 23% to 16.0

    million tonnes as unfavourable weather resulted in poor bloom and fruit set. Fresh orange consumption is up 173,000 tonnes while oranges for processing are down 5.0 million tonnes to 11.1 million. With the drop in oranges for processing, orange juice production is forecast to fall to 1.0 million tonnes (65 degrees brix).

    Production in the European Union is estimated down 5% to 6.4 million tonnes on lower area and drought conditions. Imports (which are more than triple exports) are up 10% while oranges for processing and fresh consumption are both down on lower supplies.

    Egypt’s production is estimated at a record 3.2 million tonnes, up 6% from last year on higher area. Exports are up 5% to a record 1.6 million tonnes on greater exportable supplies. Egypt accounts for one-third of global orange exports.

    South Africa’s production is expected to rise 8% to 1.5 million tonnes. Exports are forecast at a record 1.2 million tonnes and account for 25% of global trade. The European Union remains the top market accounting for over 40% of South African orange exports.

    Production in Turkey is forecast at a record 1.9 million tonnes due to favourable weather. Exports are also at a record on greater available supplies and high demand in Iraq and Russia.

    Mexico’s production is projected down slightly, which is expected to lower fruit used for processing and consumption.

    Morocco’s production is forecast only slightly lower at 1.0 million tonnes on favourable weather following early season drought. Exports and consumption are also forecast relatively flat on the minimal change in exportable supplies.

    China’s production is projected up 300,000 tonnes to 7.3 million as a result of favourable weather and yields. Consumption is up on higher domestic supplies and robust import demand for high- quality and counter-seasonal fruit. South Africa and Egypt are the top two suppliers, accounting for 60% of imports

    Orange Juice

    Global orange juice production for 2017/18 is forecast down 24% to 1.6 million tonnes (65 degrees brix) as Brazil and US production plunges on fewer oranges for processing.

    Consumption, exports, and stocks are expected to fall as Brazilian and US supplies, combined, fall to near 2015/16 levels.

    US production is expected down 98,000 tonnes to 205,000 as a result of fewer oranges for processing. Imports are forecast up 37% to 410,000 tonnes with Brazil and Mexico expected to supply over 90% of orange juice imports. The jump in imports offsets the drop in production, builds stocks, and tempers consumptions downward trend.

    Brazil’s production is expected to tumble nearly 30% to 1.0 million tonnes on fewer oranges for processing. As the largest producer, Brazil accounts for over three-quarters of global orange juice exports, but with the drop in production, both exports and stocks are forecast down.

    Production in the European Union is projected down 8% to 107,000 tonnes

    reduced oranges for processing due to lower area, high temperatures, and lack of rain. Consumption continues to slide as imports are also down. Even with declining consumption, the EU still remains the top orange juice consumer.


    Global production in 2017/18 is forecast up slightly to a record 7.7 million tonnes. Higher production in Argentina and Mexico is expected to more than offsets declines in Turkey. Global exports are forecast up slightly to a new record with record trade from Mexico, Turkey, and South Africa. Fruit used for processing is up slightly.

    Orange Juice: Production, Supply and Distribution in Selected Countries

    (1,000 Metric Tons at 65 Degrees Brix)










    Jan 2017/18 Jul 2017/18
    Brazil 1,230 1,006 859 1,447 1,152 1,032
    United States 476 425 361 303 215 205
    Mexico 126 159 166 171 171 171
    European Union 114 97 100 116 102 107
    China 55 50 46 45 44 44
    South Africa 48 55 21 19 26 30
    Turkey 9 8 9 9 9 9
    Other 25 31 13 16 15 16
    Total 2,084 1,830 1,574 2,125 1,733 1,614
    Domestic Consumption            
    European Union 799 937 826 741 717 717
    United States 700 663 631 579 510 568
    China 111 99 83 97 96 96
    Canada 94 87 93 86 82 84
    Japan 68 80 78 72 70 70
    Brazil 35 35 38 38 40 40
    Australia 40 40 40 38 38 38
    Other 112 100 90 83 81 78
    Total 1,960 2,040 1,879 1,735 1,634 1,692
    Ending Stocks            
    United States 347 358 302 270 260 285
    Brazil 329 147 6 160 60 45
    European Union 15 15 15 15 15 15
    Japan 11 18 13 12 10 10
    Korea, South 1 3 5 5 6 6
    Other 30 32 13 4 5 4
    Total 733 572 353 466 357 365
    Brazil 1,200 1,153 962 1,255 1,137 1,107
    Mexico 121 153 158 163 164 164
    European Union 57 50 52 63 65 65
    United States 113 81 66 57 45 32
    South Africa 31 45 35 28 26 29
    Other 30 32 32 32 32 30
    Total 1,552 1,514 1,305 1,598 1,468 1,427
    European Union 742 890 778 689 680 675
    United States 300 330 280 301 330 410
    Canada 98 91 97 90 85 85
    Japan 63 86 73 71 68 68
    China 57 49 40 55 55 55
    Russia 45 38 37 35 35 32
    Australia 32 32 32 32 32 32
    Other 53 47 54 47 48 48
    Total 1,391 1,563 1,391 1,320 1,332 1,404


    For 2007/08 and after, one metric ton of 65 degrees brix equals 344.8 gallons at 42 degrees brix and 1,392.6 gallons at single strength equivalent. One metric ton of 65 degrees brix equals 344.8 gallons at 42 degrees brix and 1,405.88 gallons at single strength equivalent for 2006/2007 and earlier.


    Split years refer to the harvest and marketing period, which corresponds roughly to October-September in the Northern Hemisphere.

    For the Southern Hemisphere, harvest occurs almost entirely during the second year shown and the harvest and marketing period begins in the second year shown:

    South Africa – February through January Australia – April through March

    Brazil – July through June

    Import and export totals may not equal due in part to different marketing years such as those listed above.


    By Caroline Calder Trade Data
  • 17 Sep
    EU: Bumper EU apple crop forecast

    EU: Bumper EU apple crop forecast

    This year, the apple production in the EU is set at 12.6 million tonnes due to favourable weather conditions. This represents a recovery of 36% compared to last year’s low crop but is only a 3% increase compared to the average crop of 2014 to 2016. The pear crop is predicted at 2.3 million tonnes, increasing by 4% compared to 2017.

    WAPA reveals 2018 European apple harvest will be largest in a decade, with Polish production doubling to 4.48m tonnes. The crop estimate represented a 36% climb on last year’s total EU crop of 9.25m tonnes, and a rise of 13% on the three-year average, WAPA noted. Much of this growth will be driven by Poland, the bloc’s largest apple producer, which is expecting a huge 4.48m-tonne crop this season, up 56% on the 2.87m tonnes harvested last year and 23% on the three-year average.

    Likewise, Italy is anticipating growth in volumes of 29% for 2018/19, up from 1.7m tonnes in 2017/18 to 2.2m tonnes.

    France, Europe’s third-largest grower, is forecasting a more modest rise of 5% to 1.5m tonnes, while Germany’s apple crop is set to soar 66% year-on-year to just under 1m tonnes.

    Many other countries are forecasting large yearly increases in 2018/19, including Hungary (up 37% to 728,000 tonnes), Romania (+39%, 320,000 tonnes), Belgium (+147%, 217,000 tonnes) and Austria (+175%, 184,000 tonnes).

    Only Spain, Portugal and Latvia of the leading 21 EU producers are expecting lower apple crops this season, WAPA revealed.

    www.fruitnet.com, WAPA

    By Caroline Calder News
  • 17 Sep
    US:  Tight supplies in the US citrus market

    US: Tight supplies in the US citrus market

    US citrus production continues to decline. At the current forecast of 6.16 million tonnes for 2017/18, the US citrus crop is down 21% from the previous season, reflecting expected reduced national production across all major citrus commodities and overall smaller crops in the four major-producing States. The decline in citrus production is expected to be the greatest in Florida, largely driven by crop losses from Hurricane Irma. At the same time, orange and grapefruit crops are anticipated to have the largest declines in national citrus output, with reductions by as much as 25% and 22%, respectively, if realized. Tight supplies are resulting in higher citrus prices in the domestic market.

    The shipping season for US citrus is expected to finish early given the smaller crops, likely keeping upward pressure on prices this spring. USDA

    By Caroline Calder News
  • 17 Sep
    Immune health beverages growing in demand

    Immune health beverages growing in demand

    Functional shots are generating triple-digit, 219.7% sales growth, according to SPINS’ data.

    There are many things that can weaken consumers’ immune systems, including the common cold, sleep deprivation and even flying in an airplane, where disease-causing bacteria can survive for up to a week inside warm plane cabins, wreaking havoc on the immune system, according to a 2014 study from Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.

    Dry air on a plane can cause dehydration so staying properly hydrated with water and boosting the immune system 2-3 days ahead of flying may help prevent this occurrence. Extra vitamin C and B-complex vitamins as well as consuming all-natural fruits and beverages containing antioxidant-rich blueberries, oranges, cherries and elderberries also may boost the immune system, experts note.

    “Lots of functional beverages are aiming their pitches toward the modern office professional — Life Aids’s Travelaid is a great example of this from an immunity-beverage perspective, directly marketing to those who travel on a regular basis,” says Jake Knepper, product library solutions manager at SPINS LLC, Chicago. And functional beverages that include elderberry as a primary ingredient are also  tipped to become significant in the beverages market in the next 12 months.

    Berry flavonoids, including the black elderberry, boost the body’s natural immune response and can ameliorate cold and flu symptoms


    By Caroline Calder News
  • 17 Sep
    A compound found in oranges ‘could help protect against age-related eye disease’

    A compound found in oranges ‘could help protect against age-related eye disease’

    Flavonoids have been found to have a protective effect on the likelihood of developing macular degeneration. A compound found in oranges could help protect against an incurable age-related eye disease, according to new research.

    A study has shown that people who regularly eat oranges are less likely to develop macular degeneration – which affects around 2.4% of the adult population in the UK – than people who do not eat the citrus fruit.

    The researchers at the Westmead Institute for Medical Research in Australia say that flavonoids – a group of nutrient-rich plant compounds found in oranges and other fruit and vegetables – have been linked to a decreased likelihood of developing the eye disease.

    The research is based on 2,000 adults aged over 50 over a 15-year period. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common condition that affects the middle part of vision among those in their fifties and sixties.


    By Caroline Calder News
  • 17 Sep
    US: Cherry juice potential

    US: Cherry juice potential

    The strong nutritional profile and functional benefits of cherry juice create exciting opportunities for manufacturers who could position it for sports and health nutrition and highlight the potential to help with insomnia, says a study published in the American Journal of Therapeutics.

    Tart cherry juice contains high levels of vitamins A, C, K, potassium and iron, as well as various antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents. This has seen the product linked with a range of health benefits from aiding muscle recovery post-exercise to alleviating insomnia and protecting against heart disease. These credentials should be attractive to manufacturers as they look to respond to changing perceptions around the healthiness of juice, which have contributed to sales declines across markets. However, less than 1% of global juice launches utilized cherry as a flavour component in the 12 months to July 2018, highlighting untapped potential for brands to experiment with the ingredient.

    Cherry juice has gained attention in recent years as a sports recovery drink and has been adopted by runners and other athletes for its purported anti-inflammatory benefits. Research conducted at the Oregon Health & Science University suggests that tart cherry juice reduces both muscle pain and inflammation, and may be a safer way to treat post-exercise pain than over-the-counter drugs like ibuprofen. This has led to the emergence of a number of specialist sports-focused brands offering tart cherry juice at retail. www.mintel.com

    By Caroline Calder News
  • 17 Sep
    Time to get grapefruit juice back on the menu

    Time to get grapefruit juice back on the menu

    Grapefruit juice could be the next big thing if marketers get it right suggests Caroline Whibley. 

    The health benefits of this wonder fruit really are encouraging.

    It wasn’t long ago households regularly bought grapefruit for breakfast or drank the ‘tart’ grapefruit juice, and told themselves they were being healthy. In fact, back in the 30s the Grapefruit Diet, also called the Hollywood Diet, involved having grapefruit or grapefruit juice with every meal while cutting back on calories.  People swore by it. Grapefruit has a long history with being associated with good health so where is it heading now?

    ‘In tests mice fed fatty foods

    and juice gained 18%

    less weight than others’

    Lately the consumption of grapefruit juice has declined sharply, following the accidental discovery of the interaction between grapefruit juice and certain drugs, particularly statins, extensively prescribed as cholesterol reducers. Grapefruit juice was found to interfere with the absorption of the drugs in the small intestine, thus affecting their bioavailability and increasing their toxicity. Suddenly you find the juice on the no-no list of what not to consume from your doctor.  However rather than spending a lifetime on statins surely we need to be teaching the public to consume food & drinks and health regimes that help them to keep a lower cholesterol – are statins a sticky plaster rather than really treating anything at all, and yes they benefit many, however . . .

    Long term I think we all want to see more healthy remedies to our ills, so I’m pretty positive about grapefruit juice and think it’s one to watch out for, if we can get the marketing right this dynamo juice really has some excellent benefits according to organic associations, health specialists and the science arena . . .

    Grapejuice helps reduce the effect of fatty food

    According to scientists grapefruit juice really can help us lose weight.  It is said drinking grapefruit juice when eating fatty food can help reduce weight put on by a fifth – now that is a nice statistic. They also say fruit juice could keep blood sugar levels under control. In tests mice fed fatty foods and juice gained 18% less weight than others. The research also suggested that grapefruit could be as good as prescription drugs at keeping blood sugar levels under control – a key part of managing diabetes. Professor Joseph Napoli, of the University of California, Berkeley, said: “We see all sorts of scams about nutrition.

    But these results, based on controlled experiments, warrant further study of the potential health-promoting properties of grapefruit juice.” The British Dietetic Association said the fruit now needs to be thoroughly tested in humans to see if it could help with weight loss and stem the rise of obesity and diabetes.


    Grapefruit juice carries a range of health benefits, they are low in calories but are full of nutrients, and an excellent source of vitamins A and C.

    Harvard Medical School states that grapefruit has a glycemic index of 25. This suggests that it does not significantly affect blood sugar and insulin levels. Many studies have suggested that increasing the consumption of plant foods such as grapefruit decreases the risk of  obesity, diet, heart disease and overall mortality while. It is also said to promote a healthy complexion, increased energy, and lower overall weight.


    According to the American Heart Association, eating higher amounts of flavonoid may lower the risk of ischemic stroke  for women. Flavonoids are compounds found in citrus fruits like oranges and grapefruit. The risk of ischemic stroke was 19% lower for those who consumed the highest amounts of citrus than for women who consumed the lowest amounts.

    Blood pressure and heart health

    The powerful nutrient combination of fiber, potassium, lycopene, vitamin C, and choline in grapefruit juice all help to maintain a healthy heart. In one study those who consumed 4069 milligrams (mg) of potassium per day had a 49% lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease compared with those who consumed less potassium. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database, one grapefruit with a 3-to-3.5-inch diameter contains 139 mg potassium. Grapefruit juice is an excellent option for helping to increase the daily intake of potassium. Increasing potassium intake is also important for lowering blood pressure because of its powerful vasodilation effects. Vasodilation widens the arteries. The DASH diet, designed to reduce blood pressure through dietary options, includes grapefruit as a recommended food.


    Grapefruit juice is a rich source of antioxidants, such as vitamin C. These can help combat the formation of free radicals known to cause cancer. Lycopene intake  has been linked with a decreased risk of prostrate cancer in several studies.

    Digestion & hydration

    The Grapefruit , because of its water and fiber content, helps to prevent constipation and promote regularity for a healthy digestive tract. Grapefruit consists of 91% water. This makes it one of the most hydrating fruits available. Grapefruit juice is also full of electrolytes.


    ‘The juice or grapefruit itself contains valuable and natural quinine, which is advantageous for the treatment of malaria’


    Grapefruit juice has been linked to healthy skin. However, caution is advised for people who spend a lot of time in the sun.

    The antioxidant vitamin C can help to fight skin damage caused by the sun and pollution, reduce wrinkles, and improve overall skin texture when eaten in food or applied to the skin. Vitamin C plays a vital role in the formation of collagen , the main support system of the skin. Regular hydration and vitamin A are also crucial for healthy-looking skin. Grapefruit provides both of these.

    Treat Influenza

    Grapefruit juice is a valuable remedy for influenza since it helps minimize acidity in the system. The bitter properties arising from an essence called ‘naringin’ in grapefruits tone up the system and the digestive process.  Naringin is also considered a flavonoid, which is a powerful antioxidant. Antioxidants have antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory qualities, making them one of the most important lines of defense in the immune system, protecting against influenza as well as many other serious conditions.

    Treat Malaria

    The juice or grapefruit itself contains valuable and natural quinine, which is advantageous for the treatment of malaria. Quinine is an alkaloid with a long history of treating malaria, as well as lupus, arthritis and nocturnal leg cramps.  It is not an easy component to find in many foods, so grapefruits are a beneficial and rare example. The quinine can be easily extracted from the fruits by boiling a quarter of grapefruit and straining the pulp.

    Cure Fever

    The pulp or the juice of grapefruit helps patients recover quickly from fever, and it reduces the burning sensation that occurs when the body reaches a high temperature. It is also known as a way to boost the immune system against cold and other common illnesses. Grapefruit juice, when combined with water, can quench thirst very quickly and keep you hydrated for longer. Most of these benefits come from the high content of vitamin C in grapefruits, which acts as a general immune system defense system and can help the body in fighting the fever.

    Promote Sleep

    A glass of grapefruit juice, if consumed before going to bed, can promote healthy sleep and alleviate the irritating symptoms and repercussions of insomnia. This is due to the presence of tryptophan in grapefruits, the chemical we often associate with becoming sleepy after big meals. The levels of tryptophan in grapefruit juice enable us to nod off peacefully.

    Treat Urinary Disorders

    Grapefruit juice is quite rich in potassium and vitamin C, so it is one of the best treatments for issues related to urination often caused by liver, kidney or heart problems. Furthermore, its high potassium content works as a vasodilator, meaning that blood vessels and arteries relax, thereby reducing blood pressure and lessening the risk of heart attack and stroke.  Also, increased levels of potassium have been associated with higher cognitive function because of increased blood and oxygen flow to the brain!


    • Revenue in the Grapefruit Juice segment amounts to US$276m in 2018. The market is expected to grow annually by 0.8% (CAGR 2018-2021).
    • From an international perspective it is shown that most revenue is generated in the United States (US$314m in 2018).
    • Sources: Science Direct, Medical News Today, Organicsfacts.net, Healthline.com, Mail Online, Statistica.com
    By Caroline Calder Features
  • 17 Sep
    Trade spat hits juice trade

    Trade spat hits juice trade

    Cranberry juice and orange juice have been dragged into the crossfire in a trade dispute between the United States and the European Union, reports Chris Lyddon.

    Hit by EU reaction to an American decision to slap tariffs on imports of steel and aluminium. The row started on 1 March when President Trump imposed extra import duties on EU exports of steel and aluminium on exports of steel and aluminium from the EU and other countries to the US. The duties were 25% on steel and 10% on aluminium.

    EU adopts rebalancing measures in reaction to US steel and aluminium tariffs.

    The EU responded with what it called ‘rebalancing measures’ targeting products worth €2.8 billion and taking effect on 22 June. The EU’s list included not only steel and aluminium, but a long list of agricultural and industrial products. It includes orange and cranberry juice.

    The EU says it’s simply exercising its rights under World Trade Organisation rules. “We did not want to be in this position,” said “Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström. “However, the unilateral and unjustified decision of the US to impose steel and aluminium tariffs on the EU means that we are left with no other choice.” The rules of international trade could not be violated without a response. “If the US removes its tariffs, our measures will also be removed,” Malmström said. The EU says the actual trade value of the steel and aluminium affected by the US measures is €6.4 billion. It will come up with a further €3.6 billion of ‘rebalancing’ in three years, or after a positive finding in a WTO dispute, which ever comes first.

    Canada has also responded by imposing tariffs on a list of products, including orange juice, which has faced a 10% tariff from 1 July. The total value of its list is C$16.6 billion, representing the value of the Canadian products affected by the US measures. “The unilateral trade restrictions by the United States are also in violation of NAFTA and WTO trade rules,” said in Ottawa on 31 May. “Canada will therefore launch dispute-settlement proceedings under NAFTA Chapter 20 and WTO Dispute Settlement.

    “Canada will also closely collaborate with like-minded WTO members, including the European Union, to challenge these illegal and counterproductive US measures at the WTO,” she said. Like the EU, she dismissed the US suggestion that its measures were justified by national security. “It is entirely inappropriate to view any trade with Canada as a national security threat to the United States,” she said. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, speaking the same day, was more forthright on that subject. “For 150 years, Canada has been America’s most steadfast ally,” he said. “Canadians have served alongside Americans in two world wars and in Korea.”

    US cranberry producers have been hit from other directions. Mexico, also responding to Trump’s steel and aluminium duties, imposed a 20% tariff on dried cranberries in June. China has also imposed a tariff on dried cranberries from the US.

    The Wall Street Journal quoted Linda Prehn, a Wisconsin grower and president of the Cranberry Growers Cooperative, in an article on the world’s moves to retaliate against the cranberry. “It’s ironic,” she said. “I would say most Wisconsin cranberry growers supported Trump. They’d hate to see their businesses tank because of these tariffs.”

    An article published by the Capital Press website on 28 August, put the value of US exports of cranberries and cranberry products at about $300 million a year. It quoted, Terry Humfeld, Executive Director of the Massachusetts-based Cranberry Institute as saying that it was too early to say what the effect on the sector would be. “We believe there is an impact, but don’t have any numbers to back that up, and probably won’t for a few months,” he said.

    According to Ocean Spray, more than half the world’s cranberries come from the US state of Wisconsin. They are one of only three fruits native to North America.

    Speaking to the FreightWaves website, Kellyanne Dignan, Ocean Spray’s Director of Global Corporate Affairs, said that “any tariffs that increase the price of either our ingredient or branded products will hurt our farmer families’ bottom line.”

    “It is also important to note, the tariffs that have been placed on cranberry products do nothing but raise prices for global consumers, as there is no domestic production to protect outside of the US, Canada, and Chile,” she said.


    By Caroline Calder Features